White Box Testing
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White Box Testing also known as glass box, structural, clear box and open box testing. A software testing technique whereby internal structures or working of an application being tested are used to select the test data as opposed to its functionality (black-box testing). Unlike black box testing, white box testing uses  knowledge of programming code to examine outputs.
The white box test cases incorporates coverage of the code written, branches, paths, statements, conditions and loops etc. The number of test cases that needs to be written can be managed through equivalence class partitioning and boundary values.
White-box testing can be applied at the unit, integration and system levels of the software testing, It can test paths within a unit, paths between units during integration, and between subsystems during a system level test.
This method of testing uncovers error on code being written to be confident on accuracy of code. It does not account for errors caused by omission.
Set of test cases can be derived as follows
  • Equivalence partition - Boundary value analysis
  • Control flow testing
  • Data flow testing
  • Code coverage testing
    1. Statement coverage
    2. Branch coverage
    3. Condition coverage
    4. Condition decision coverage
    5.  Loop coverage
The pros and cons
There are certain good advantages of white box testing. Here are few of the most common.
  1. Accuracy of implemented code can be determined.
  2.  Uncovers programmer errors at initial level of testing.
  3. Knowledge of internal structure or working of application helpful in designing test cases
  4. It helps in code optimization of application being under test.
Despite good advantages, WBT have its own drawbacks. Here are few of the most common.
  1.  Programming skill tester needed to perform WBT. As the complexity of application increases that require much more highly skilled tester.
  2. As the application changes. It requires maintenance of the scripts.
 

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